Metal Thickness Measurements
Filmetrics provides several solutions for the measurement of metal films:
Profilometry is a common and easily applicable method for metal film thickness measurements. All that is needed is a step from an uncoated to a metal-coated area to determine the step height and therewith the metal thickness. With profilometry, there is little need to know specifics about the material under investigation, and the maximum measureable thickness is only restricted by the maximum measureable thickness of the optical profiler used. The step-height accuracy depends on the vertical resolution of the profiler. In the case of the Filmetrics Profilm3D, the accuracy is 0.7% for an 8 µm step – which means 56 nm!
Spectral Transmittance (ST)
For very thin films, spectral transmittance (ST) measurements are an alternative and less expensive way to measure thickness. For this kind of measurement, Filmetrics offers the aRTie and F2-T which are available at about half the price of our Profilm3D optical profiler. For ST measurements, the maximum measureable thickness depends strongly on the metal at hand (see table). However, there are a few limitations to this approach. For one, the substrate material must be transparent. For another, the optical constants of the material under investigation must be known to get accurate results. Often, this is uncritical because Filmetrics provides a large database of material data files with its instruments. If, on the other hand, the material’s properties are unknown or changing on a regular basis (e.g. if coating process parameters are changed occasionally), the sole measurement of ST is not enough. In this case, the following approach of combined spectral transmittance and spectral reflectance is more suited.
Combination of Spectral Transmittance and Spectral Reflectance (ST/SR)
If the optical properties of the material are unknown, a simultaneous measurement of spectral transmittance, reflectance, and angled reflectance can be used to determine the optical constants and to measure the film’s thickness in the same process. In this case, the measurable thickness range is about half of ST measurements. The instrument of choice for this is Filmetrics’ F10-RTA, which is priced about the same as our Profilm3D optical profiler.
Summary the Applicability/Benefits of the Three Methods:
|Suitable Instruments||Profilm3D||aRTie or F2-T||F10-RTA|
|Thickness Range||50nm-10mm||see table below||contact us|
|Material optical properties required?||No||Yes||No|
|Transparent substrate required?||No||Yes||Yes|
Examples of Maximum Measurable Thickness Using Spectral Transmittance:
|Metal||Maximum Measurable Thickness by Transmittance||Approx. %T Peak Position|
Thickness Measurement Example
This particular sample was a thin film of aluminum on a glass substrate. In order to solve for thickness as well as optical constants, measurements were taken on our F10-RTA system, which combines reflectance and transmittance at normal incidence, with 70 degree reflectance data. Through the use of our “No Model” model, we measured the thickness and optical constants of this metal film, all with a single mouse-click.
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Amorphous & Polysilicon
Measure thickness, crystallinity, and n and k of all forms of amorphous and polycrystalline silicon.
Our F80 Thickness Imaging products are used to measure oxide, STI, and metal CMP processes.
Filmetrics stocks instruments that measure the thousands of dielectric films used throughout industry.
CVD, dielectrics, barrier, PECVD, passivation, insulator, protection, Al2O3, CoO, ZnO, MoO, TiO2, Cr2O3, Nb2O5
Filmetrics systems are used widely in the automotive industry to verify hardcoat and primer thickness.
Acrylic, Automotive industry, Chemical resistance, Clear coating, Decorative coating, Hardcoat, Eyewear, Face shield, Hardcoat, Hardness, Interpenetration Layer, Marring, Ophthalmic lens, Optical quality, Plastic lens, Polycarbonate, Polyester, Siloxane, Primer, Protective film, Scratch resistant, Screen protection, Surface finish, Surface protection, Thermal cure, Top coating, Touch screen, UV coating, UV cure
IC Failure Analysis
The F3-sX is used throughout the chip making industry to measure backside thinning of silicon.
Failure Analysis, FA, Silicon, Si, Integrated circuit, IC, Polishing, Backside failure analysis, Silicon thinning
ITO & Other TCOs
Proprietary analysis algorithms allow one-click measurement of TCO thickness, index, and k.
Indium tin oxide, ITO, tin-doped indium oxide, Transparent conductive oxide, TCO, Display, Front contact, Transparent Electrode, LED, LCD, Solar, Fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO, TEC, TEC glass, Aluminum zinc oxide, AZO, Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, Zinc oxide, iZO, Indium zinc oxide, IZO, zinc-doped indium oxide
Measure thickness of angioplasty balloons, stent and implant coatings, and many others.
Stents, drug-coated stents, Drug-coating, Balloons, Angioplasty, Parylene, Microfluidic device, Air gap, Catheter, Membranes
Measure thickness, index, and k of metal films up to 50nm thick.
Metallized, Metallization, Foils, Stents, Mirrors, Steel, Stainless Steel, Gold, Nickel, Aluminium, Silver, Cobalt, Zinc, Molybdenum, Titanium, Chrome, Chromium, Niobium, Tungsten, Gallium, Germanium
Measure thickness and index of NPB, AlQ3, PEDOT, P3HT, soluble Teflons, etc…
PLED, AMOLED, Hole Transport (HT), Hole Injection Layer (HIL), Host Materials, anode, cathode, Alq3, NPB, phenylene vinylene, carbazole, thiophene, aniline, styrenesulfonate, phthalocyanine, naphthalene, fluorene, lithium, silver, ITO, calcium
Use the F10-AR to measure reflectance and color, as well as AR and hardcoat layer thicknesses.
eyeglasses, HC, hardcoat, scratch resistant, AR, anti-reflection, reflectance, UV curable, hydrophillic, polycarbonate, high index, CR39, MR-6, MR-7, Trivex
Simply set your parylene-coated sample on the stage of the F3-CS to measure its thickness!
We’ve measured dozens of different resists, and can generate index files for any resist you use.
SU-8, resist, Photoresist, PR, AZ, AZP, ZEP, positive, negative, g-line, i-line, KrF, PMMA, FEP, GRX, KMPR
Measure thickness, porosity, refractive index, and k of your porous silicon films.
Filmetrics offers a full range of products for measuring semiconductor process films.
Refractive Index & k
Measure refractive index and extinction coefficient over wavelengths as wide as 190-1700nm.
n & k, complex, real , imaginary, refractive index, absorption, extinction coefficient, indices, Kramers-Kronig, optical dispersion, dielectric, Lorentz, Cauchy, photoresist, anomalous dispersion, path length
Silicon Wafers & Membranes
We offer tabletop, mapping, and production systems for measuring silicon up to 2mm thick.
Measure CdTe, CdS, CIGS, amorphous-Si, TCOs, anti-reflection (AR) layers, and more...
Copper indium gallium diselenide, CIGS, Cadmium telluride, CdTe, Cad tel,, Amorphous silicon, Amorphous Si, a-Si, Cadmium sulfide, CdS, window layer, buffer layer, Thin-film photovoltaic, Thin-film PV, TFPV, photovoltaics, Solar, Solar cells, Inline, In-situ, Roll-to-roll, R2R, Evaporation, Sputtering, CVD, MOCVD, PECVD, Transparent conductive oxide, TCO, Indium tin oxide, ITO, tin-doped indium oxide
Semiconductor Teaching Labs
More than fifty Filmetrics F20s have been delivered for use in university teaching labs.
Surface Roughness & Finish
3-dimensional surface profile measurements to characterize surface roughness.
Filmetrics systems are widely used in the polymer-films community to measure thickness in-line.
Roll to roll, Roll measurements, Roll systems, Rolling substrate, Roll fed, Roll web, Reel to reel , R2R, Web coater, Autoweb, In-line, In-line monitor, Online thickness, Line monitoring system, Precision measuring tools, Automatic, Feeding, Production, Multipoint, High speed